**Solutions:** You can find the file with solutions for all
questions here.

## Recursion

### Question 1: Reduce

Write the recursive version of the function `reduce`

which takes

- reducer - a two-argument function that reduces elements to a single value
- seq - a sequence of values
- start - the starting value in the reduction. This is usually the identity of the reducer

If you're feeling stuck, think about the parameters of `reduce`

.

```
from operator import add, mul
def reduce(reducer, seq, start):
"""Reduce a sequence under a two-argument function starting from a start value.
>>> def add(x, y):
... return x + y
>>> def mul(x, y):
... return x*y
>>> reduce(add, [1,2,3,4], 0)
10
>>> reduce(mul, [1,2,3,4], 0)
0
>>> reduce(mul, [1,2,3,4], 1)
24
"""
if seq == []:
return start
next_base = reducer(start, seq[0])
return reduce(reducer, seq[1:], next_base)
```

Use OK to test your code:

`python3 ok -q reduce`

### Question 2: Remove Last from Sequence

Complete the recursive function `remove_last`

which creates a new list identical to the input list `lst`

but with the last element in the sequence that is equal to `x`

removed.

Hint:Remember that you can use negative indexing on lists! For example`lst[-1]`

refers to the last element in a list`lst`

,`lst[-2]`

refers to the second to last element...

```
def remove_last(x, lst):
"""Create a new list that is identical to lst but with the last
element from the list that is equal to x removed.
>>> remove_last(1,[])
[]
>>> remove_last(1,[1])
[]
>>> remove_last(1,[1,1])
[1]
>>> remove_last(1,[2,1])
[2]
>>> remove_last(1,[3,1,2])
[3, 2]
>>> remove_last(1,[3,1,2,1])
[3, 1, 2]
>>> remove_last(5, [3, 5, 2, 5, 11])
[3, 5, 2, 11]
"""
if not lst:
return []
elif lst[-1] == x:
return lst[0:-1]
else:
return remove_last(x, lst[0:-1]) + [lst[-1]]
```

Illustrated here is a more complete doctest that shows good testing methodology. It is a little cumbersome as documentation, but you'll want to think about it for your projects. Test every condition that might come up. Then you won't be surprised when it does.

Use OK to test your code:

`python3 ok -q remove_last`

### Question 3: Map

Write the recursive version of the function `map`

which takes

- m - a one-argument function that you want to map onto each element in the list.
- s - a sequence of values

```
def map(f, seq):
"""
Map a function f onto a sequence.
>>> def double(x):
... return x * 2
>>> def square(x):
... return x ** 2
>>> def toLetter(x):
... alpha = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g', 'h', 'i', 'j', 'k', 'l', 'm', 'n', 'o', 'p', 'q', 'r', 's', 't', 'u', 'v', 'w', 'x', 'y', 'z']
... return alpha[x%26]
>>> map(double, [1,2,3,4])
[2, 4, 6, 8]
>>> map(square, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10])
[1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 100]
>>> map(toLetter, [3, 0, 19, 0])
['d', 'a', 't', 'a']
"""
if seq == []:
return seq
return [f(seq[0])] + map(f, seq[1:])
```

Use OK to test your code:

`python3 ok -q map`

### Question 4: Hailstone

For the `hailstone`

function from previously, you pick a positive
integer `n`

as the start. If `n`

is even, divide it by 2. If `n`

is
odd, multiply it by 3 and add 1. Repeat this process until `n`

is 1.
Write a recursive version of hailstone that prints out the values of
the sequence and returns the number of steps.

```
def hailstone_iterative(n):
"""Print out the hailstone sequence starting at n, and return the
number of elements in the sequence.
>>> a = hailstone_iterative(10)
10
5
16
8
4
2
1
>>> a
7
"""
print(n)
if n == 1:
return 1
elif n % 2 == 0:
return 1 + hailstone_iterative(n // 2)
else:
return 1 + hailstone_iterative(3 * n + 1)
def hailstone_recursive(n):
"""Print out the hailstone sequence starting at n, and return the
number of elements in the sequence.
>>> a = hailstone_recursive(10)
10
5
16
8
4
2
1
>>> a
7
"""
print(n)
if n == 1:
return 1
elif n % 2 == 0:
return 1 + hailstone_recursive(n // 2)
else:
return 1 + hailstone_recursive(3 * n + 1)
```

Use OK to test your code:

```
python3 ok -q hailstone_iterative
python3 ok -q hailstone_recursive
```

## Tree Recursion

### Question 5: Count Generations

Consider the following "family tree":

family_tree = [("Jordan", "Alex"), [ [("Taylor", "Morgan"), [ [("Riley", None), []], [("Avery", None), []] ]] ]]

In this family tree, we see a series of nested lists which takes the format `[(parents), [children]]`

. An empty list means that person has no children.
This tree represents 3 generations.

The goal is to count the maximum number of "generations" represented in the family tree. In this simple tree, there are 3 generations.

```
def count_generations(family_tree):
"""
Count the number of generations in a nested list-based family tree.
>>> count_generations([("A"), []])
1
>>> count_generations([("A"), [[("B"), []], [("C"), []] ] ])
2
>>> family_tree = [("Jordan", "Alex"), [
... [("Taylor", "Morgan"), [
... [("Riley", None), []],
... [("Avery", None), []]
... ]]
... ]]
>>> count_generations(family_tree)
3
>>> family_tree = [("Jordan", "Alex"), [
... [("Taylor", "Morgan"), [
... [("Riley", "Sam"), [
... [("Avery", None), []]
... ]]
... ]],
... [("Casey", "Jamie"), [
... [("Quinn", "Chris"), [
... [("Dakota", None), []],
... [("Skyler", None), []]
... ]],
... [("Jesse", "Jordan"), []]
... ]]
... ]]
>>> count_generations(family_tree)
4
"""
if not family_tree:
return 0
parents = family_tree[0]
children = family_tree[1]
max_gen = 0
# for child in children:
# gen = count_generations(child)
# if gen > max_gen:
# max_gen = gen
if len(children) > 0:
max_gen = max([count_generations(child) for child in children])
return 1 + max_gen
```

Use OK to test your code:

`python3 ok -q count_generations`